FIBA Rules 2014 – Art. 47 Officials: Duties and Powers
47.3 When deciding on a personal contact or violation, the officials shall, in each instance, have regard to and weigh up the following fundamental principles:
• The spirit and intent of the rules and the need to uphold the integrity of the game.
• Consistency in application of the concept of ‘advantage/disadvantage’. The officials should not seek to interrupt the flow of the game unnecessarily in order to penalise incidental personal contact which does not give the player responsible an advantage nor place his opponent at a disadvantage.
• Consistency in the application of common sense to each game, bearing in mind the abilities of the players concerned and their attitude and conduct during the game.
• Consistency in the maintenance of a balance between game control and game flow, having a ‘feeling’ for what the participants are trying to do and calling what is right for the game.
NBA Officiating Performance Standards (page 4):
“Distinguishes allowable physical contact from illegal contact
• “Calls a foul on illegal contact
• “Does not call a foul on contact when allowable, such as when a defender applies contact to an offensive player to maintain a defensive position or when contact does not affect an offensive player’s speed, quickness, balance or rhythm”.
FIBA Rules 2014 – Art. 37 Unsportsmanlike Foul
37.1.1. An unsportsmanlike foul is a player contact foul which, in the judgement of an official is:
• Not a legitimate attempt to directly play the ball within the spirit and intent of the rules.